Pathology meaning "experience" or "suffering" is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.A medical doctor that specializes in pathology is called a pathologist. Pathologists are experts at interpreting microscopic views of body tissues. As a field of general inquiry and research, pathology addresses four components of disease: cause, mechanisms of development (pathogenesis), structural alterations of cells, and the consequences of changes. Pathology is a medical specialty that determines the cause and nature of diseases by examining and testing body tissues and bodily fluids. The results from these pathology tests help doctors diagnose and treat patients correctly.

The pathologist must produce accurate and reliable diagnoses quickly in response to his/her colleagues' requests. The pathologist in turn relies on a modern pathology laboratory that offers a wide spectrum of technologies that assist in extracting detailed information from the cells and the tissues. The pathology laboratory is a complex operation that relies on the skills and teamwork of many people to ensure that each patient and doctor receives the best service possible.

A short way to put it is that the pathologist is "the doctor's doctor." Pathologists do not regularly see patients but are, in effect, consultants to physicians from other disciplines in providing detailed diagnoses.It involves the examination of tissues, organs, bodily fluids and autopsies in order to study and diagnose disease. Currently, Pathology can be divided into eight main areas, depending on the types of methods used or the types of diseases examined.

  • General Pathology.
  • Anatomical Pathology.

  • Clinical Pathology.
  • Chemical Pathology or Biochemistry.

  • Genetics.
  • Hematology.

  • Immunology.
  • Microbiology.